Physics-31.Rotational Mechanics

5.1 DEFINITION OF CENTRE OF MASS Centre of mass: Every physical system has associated with it a certain point whose motion characterizes the motion of the whole system. When the system moves under some external forces than this point moves as if the entire mass of the system is concentrated at this point and also the external force is applied at his point of translational motion. This point is called the centre of mass of the system. Centre of mass of system of n point masses or n particles is that point about which moment of mass of the system is zero, it means that if about a particular origin the moment of mass of system of n point masses is zero, then that particular origin is the centre of mass of the system. The concept of centre of mass is a pure mathematical concept. If there are n particles having mass m1, m2 ….m n and are placed in space (x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2) ……….(x n, y n, z n) then centre of mass of system is defined as (X, Y, Z) where = Y = and Z = where

Physics-30.24-Physics-Solids and Semiconductors

UNIT 24 - SOLIDS AND SEMICONDUCTORS 1. SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS (SEMICONDUCTORS) (A) Energy bands in solids: (i) In solids, the group of closely lying energy levels is known as energy band. (ii) In solids the energy bands are analogous to energy levels in an atom. (iii) In solids the atoms are arranged very close to each other. In these atoms there are discrete energy levels of electrons. For the formation of crystal these atoms come close together, then due to nucleus-nucleus, electron-electron and electron-nucleus interactions the discrete energy levels of atom distort and consequently each energy level spits into a large number of closely lying energy levels. (iv) The number of split energy levels is proportional to the number of atoms interacting with each other. If two atoms interact then each energy level splits into two out of which one will be somewhat above and another will be somewhat below the main energy level. In solids the number of atoms is very large ( 1023). Hence eac

Physics-29.23-Atoms-Molecules & nuclei

1. RADIOACTIVITY It was observed by Henri Becquerel in i896 that some minerals like pitchblende emit radiation spontaneously, and this radiation can blacken photographic plates if photographic plate is wrapped in light proof paper. He called this phenomenon radioactivity. It was observed that radioactivity was not affected by temperature, pressure or chemical combination, it could therefore be a property that was intrinsic to the atom-more specifically to its nucleus. Detailed studies of radioactivity resulted in the discovery that radiation emerging from radioactive substances were of three types : -rays, -rays and -rays. -rays were found to be positively charged, -rays (mostly) negatively charged, and - rays uncharged. Some of the properties of and – rays, are explain below: (i) Alpha Particles: An -particle is a helium nucleus, i.e. a helium atom which has lost two electrons. It has a mass about four times that of a hydrogen atom and carries a charge +2e. The velocity